Individuals, towns, villages and societies are also eligible open on its own initiative of the Poorhouse, and that in 1797 Paul I appointed his wife Maria Feodorovna leader of all social institutions. A new phase in the history of charity work. The entire 19th century was time of rapid development of philanthropy in Russia. For example, the company visits the poor in St. Petersburg, founded in 1846 on the initiative of Prince VF Odoevskogo attracted to help disadvantaged as volunteers, and sponsors.
In the second half of the 19th century greatly expanded the practice of philanthropy and charity. Charitable Funds pooled around him more and more volunteers and benefactors: and the place of residence, and educational level, and by type of employment (the Society of women's work, the Society of cheap apartments, etc.). Appeared Sunday public schools with free training and voluntary work of teachers – their founders were convinced that the causes of poverty in his nation kroyatsya ignorance. Thus, the charity amounted to enlightenment. Equally for the characterization of existing charity system is important in order the fact that until 1912 the state pension in Russia accrue exclusively military and government officials. However, insurance law obliged to pay pensions to 2.5 million workers and employees of the factory and mining industry. Caring for the poor, the disabled and orphans also has its own history. In 1682, opened two almshouses for the disabled, the end of the century, their number exceeded 10, and in 1718 these institutions was 90 (including Sailor's Silence on Yauza).
Graph Sheremetev founded a hospice to a hospital for orphaned and needy (now the Institute of Emergency Care. BSA understood the implications. Sklifosovsky). Under Alexander I, French doctor Hauy founded Russia's first institute for the blind, and after War of 1812 appeared the newspaper "Russian Invalid" created for veterans and come up to the October Revolution. During the Crimean, Russian-Turkish and Russian-Japanese war were born the first community Sisters of Charity. Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and the famous surgeon Pirogov were pioneers of this movement, which later joined the Red Cross Society. After the Revolution of charity could not be revived immediately. State took over full responsibility for all social problems, so in theory the need for charity disappeared. In fact, it only intensified. Only during the Second World War revived the tradition of voluntary donations, which came on defense needs, and to ensure that disadvantaged (although donations received at public expense, which was explained by only a clumsy, primitive system of charitable activity.) Only in times of restructuring the citizens an opportunity to proactively participate in the social mutual aid. And it was a means of creating a civil society, and is not a means of facilitating the work of the state budget. Funds were created with the right to call themselves full-fledged charitable organizations. Today, the majority of charitable organizations in Russia combining the collection. Also in Russia there are more than 70 major international charities.