Turkish Language

In Turkey, the official language is Turkish (Turk dili, briefly: Turkce) and applies it to the Turkic languages. This language, in such a way as we used to have formed in the mid-twentieth century and is the south-western Turkic language. Except Turkey, it can be seen in some areas of the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean region. Until the mid-nineteenth century in Ottoman Turkey, there was a literary language, It is based on Persian and Arabic borrowing. It was only later, formed a literary language Turkish. However, were not lost verses on drevneturetskom language, written in the thirteenth century. It is they who are the first surviving letters, basis of the modern Turkish language. But the Arabic alphabet remained, right up to 1928, from which Turkey moved to the Latin alphabet.

Familiar to us, the literary Turkish language, was formed quite late in the 30-50gody XX century, and it is based includes the urban dialect of Ankara, Istanbul and Cyprus dialects. For a long time Turkey has been fragmented into many fiefdoms, united only in the XV century. It is these rulers, feudal lords sought to transfer as much as possible the number of books in Turkish language. Translators were educated people, who came from the Persian trade caravans, and the rest of the Turkish rulers. Especial popularity enjoyed the commentary on the Koran, translated into Turkish language is so simple that they could completely understand anyone who can read, man. But the Turkish language were also translated books on medicine and history different countries.

The Era

The dependence on the language of the media, having an electronic basis, emphasizes Castells, leads to a far-reaching consequences for the characteristics, organization and goals of political processes, politicians and political institutions. Ultimately, the power held by the network media is second only to the power flow, as embodied in the structure and language of these networks' 7. The main contradiction (and hence the driving force behind the development of) the emerging new society based on network structures, is a contradiction between the globalization of the world and identity (identity) of a specific community. In our view, should also be noted the dual role of network structures on the one hand to create, independent community and culture, but at the same time, they can create low-quality information and symbolic samples. Soon begins to show the "third" methodological crisis in sociology, who is considered the main cause of many theories, concepts and approaches which, in fact, failed to give, to describe and explain holistic picture of society. However, some researchers have expressed the following views, saying the crisis of social sciences in general: "There is no problem in multiparadigmality or absence of a single paradigm. 'Dislocation in heads "of researchers, experts, 'innovators', 'Dukes'. Pragmatists may be guided by quite well with the existing order of theoretical models.

"8" No great innovation does not mean the end of the social Science. The era gave way to the era of translations of manuals and technical manuals. 'Dukes' republic' changed 'management guru'. "9 In our opinion a promising direction in the development of sociology is to use not completely uncovered layers of meaning of symbolic interactionism, explains dramatically increased the flow of information prepodnosimoy media, through the formation of symbolic representations, creating a very peculiar picture of the world, profitable, above all political, economic and other elites.

The Act

Paraphrasing Echo (1994) in a history always it has a reader and it is basic ingredient in the process to count a history and in the one of proper history. The reader is basic part in contact with a text, it does not leave of being a personage who, through the reading will discover &#039 all; ' mistrio' ' involved in that set of words, conjuncts and chapters. The act to read usually is related with the writing, and, the reader is who decodes the letters, he is who is in contact with them, interpreting its meanings, and what they want to say in definitive context. The language is a phenomenon that possesss some forms and defies men of all the places, however, the individuals with access to the reading and to the writing, they have more easiness in constructing texts. ' ' The purpose of a book that presents elements of a speech grammar is to become explicit implicit mechanisms of estruturao and interpretation of texts. Who writes or reads with efficiency knows these procedures of way more or less ' ' intuitiva' '. Explicitar them it contributes so that a bigger number of people can, in faster and efficient way, to changed itself into good leitores.' ' (FIORINI, 2000:10). To take the pupil to learn as it develops the literal ability is task of the school, and the collection biggest always falls in the professor of Portuguese, but of form to interdisciplinar all the areas can and must collaborate. To construct a text is not easy task, demands much concentration and much reading, since, is this that leads to the decoding of the text in its form. A text if constructs many times, penosa and slowly depending very on the effort and the persistence of the constructor to remake ' ' obra' ' , either for insufficience of cultural foundation, either because of thematic shunting lines or of grammatical imploses.


‘ On the other hand, the truth of an express proposal a fact, in the case of the moral judgments does not have nothing that is equivalent to the affirmation of that determined one been of things ‘ ‘. A normative consensus, forming in conditions of free and universal participation in the context of a practical speech, establishes a valid norm (or it confirms its validity). ‘ validade’ of a moral norm it means that ‘ merece’ the universal recognition in virtue of its capacity of, by means of the reason only, to get the assent of the will of those to who if dirige.’ ‘ (HABERMAS 2007, P. 65-66) Good i, what we have is the proposal of a side that points with respect to the fact that ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ of the other the moral judgment that does not have the same possibility, however would fit a clarification concerning this proposal here that in one of its aspects could be abrangncia of an experience given and crystallized in a result of what ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ that is, something that infects or makes possible a relation that would characterize as a citizen its circumstance, a dualidade that clama a unit, what he is or that where the proper proposal still points or the fact and, how much to the moral judgment, that does not point with respect to what it is, however only perhaps, for what it could be, that is, the presumption or still the estimated one and we have a difficult shock considered for Habermas, reason and will here and could ask what it characterizes the reason? Or still, the reason in its affirmation is will or construction on a foundation or a structure of will? Better it would be to place, what it would constitute the reason? Would be the proposal an intrinsic characteristic of the same one, that is, the reason? The reason in its constitution is not affirmed in proposals, as if it looks at for this, however when we arrive at the validity of something we are ahead of the quandary, affirmation and negation where in accordance with this, the reason, will subordinate or to the will not having become – a recognition that perhaps can say with this word, something that it was known and that necessary to pass again for the same process of knowing, that is, to recognize is to know two times so that if directs for what it could be characterized as the fact that constitutes what perhaps it gives cohesion to the assigned person as universal.

Senator of the Empire

Joaquin Aurlio Barreto Nabuco de Arajo, Joaquin Nabuco as he was known, was born in the Street of Aterro of the Boa Vista (current Street of Empress Tereza Cristina), in Recife-Pernambuco, the 19 of August of 1849. He was son of the Council member and Senator of the Empire, Jose Toms Nabuco de Arajo, a rich jurist and bahian politician, who if consolidated in Recife, and of Benign Ana of S Barreto. Joaquin Nabuco if opposed in vehement way the slavery, against which it in such a way fought by means of activities politics and how much of its writings. It made campaign against the slavery in the House of representatives of 1878, and established Brazilian the Anti-Slavery Society. It was to a large extent responsible for the abolition of the slavery in 1888, and after the falling of trees of the Brazilian monarchy it left of the public life for some time. He was baptized in the Handle, having as godfathers you of the Device Massangana, Pink Joaquin Aurlio Pear tree of Carvalho and Ana Hawk of Oak. With the death of the godmother, he was to live in Rio De Janeiro with the parents, where he made the primary course and secondary.

It wrote, in 1869, the book the slavery, in which it defended, in a jury, a black slave who assassinates its Sir, workmanship who remained unknown up to 1988, when Joaquin Nabuco was published by the Foundation, in Recife. In 1872, the Device vendeu Would saw that it inherited of its godmother and with the sales, passed one year in the Europe, making contacts with intellectuals and politicians and if preparing for futuroJoaquim Nabuco attended a course Humanities in the College Peter II and Right, being that the three first years he made in So Paulo, concluding these courses in Recife. He had 21 years when he formed himself.

The Challenge

To be presented as challenges. Beyond the relative activities its specific subjects, the organizations that go to each frum are invited to contribute for the formularization of alternatives around the transversal subjects. Conclusion: In all the set of events, facts scientifically proven, the world-wide reaction to all the circumstances mentioned here. We can believe that, the union of the efforts of all, can yes, to bring excellent results, mainly when we look at the possible problem as something to be solved, when the solutions depend on an enthusiasm and existing knowledge technician and mainly organization. World-wide the Social Frum is a very current example of this and clarifies still more, that the power is not an object of use of who is governing the nation but of all the ones that will be made use to make what she will be necessary so that if has a better world.

Why We Get Fat

To date, there are many ways to lose weight – it's different diets, exercise, dance, etc. But sometimes we notice that all our attempts to lose weight to nothing lead. Why not? To this there several reasons. 1. Shopping in a supermarket. Looking at all the goodies and want to reach out and throw them into his cart.

And when we come to the checkout, you can see in his ice cream, candy, cookies, sodas and other sweets. But with This scourge is easy to handle. First, take the trolley instead of cart. So you will feel the weight of food that you are taking, and will soon stop. Second, immediately go to the Front with fruits and vegetables, in fact they are your most top aides in losing weight. 2.

Work late. A couple of hours of extra work can undo all your efforts on getting rid of excess weight. From stress and lack of sleep you overeat, and the lack of personal time does not allow engaged in fitness. To avoid fatigue, take short breaks during which perform vigorous exercise. To unload the spine, sit on a chair, place feet wide and lean forward, touching his hands to the floor near the feet. After this exercise you will feel a lightness in his back. 3. Snack on easy low-calorie foods such as apple or other fruit. Drink green tea without sugar, possibly with a small piece of dark chocolate to make up for lack of energy. 4. Some ladies prefer an evening workout after a good meal. Do not. It is better to eat an hour before classes, and after – a snack vegetable salads. 5. Your workout uniform. If you keep doing the same exercise, your body gets used to them, and they take far less energy than before. When you feel that you are easily exercises, start doing more complex. 6. You wear loose clothes. It will be a good fit for you, even if you recover to 1-2 kg. Therefore, periodically wear something cushioning. And the clothes that you velikovata, keep or discard. 7. During cooking you always try something. Leave this bad habit. Let taste be your home, but if you're hungry, eat fruits or vegetables. 8. You are hiding from all that are trying to lose weight. According to statistics, those who find in this case, support from family and friends, losing 6% more overweight. So let your family and colleagues will know about your goal. Better yet, if someone will lose weight with you. Follow these eight tips and you will notice how your weight is shifted off the ground and began to decline.


Do not aspire to stunning results – 20 kg per month. 2-3 kg will be sufficient; Schedule your diet in advance. Try to eat more vegetables and fruits. Cooked chicken and chicken broth soups, fish and rice. Do not exclude from the list of milk products – cheese, yogurt; Eat often, but not enough. So that felt light hunger; The basic nutritional needs to be lunch. Eat the same thing as before (soups, second), but fewer in number, gradually reducing the dose; Do not cram the night. In principle, you should avoid eating too much; Sugar and salt is used in minute amounts, as well as butter oil; Most drink, but no tea or coffee, and water or juice.

2 kit. Exercise. Buttocks: To perform the next exercise you will have to kneel down, stretch her hands to the floor and straining his buttocks and pulling socks, make max line leg. The amplitude of the stroke should not be large. At each step needs to be done for 20-30 strokes; Lying on the floor, bend your knees, hands over the body. Squeeze your buttocks and dramatically "push" up the lower torso. Repeat 30-40 times. Hips: Start with squats – with or without weight, you decide, as long as during exercise, you could not take the heels off the floor, thighs kept strictly parallel to the floor, back straight, feet slightly wider than shoulders; squats without weight or up to 5 kg should be carried out in three sets by 25-30 times, gradually increasing the number of sit-ups for the approach; Squats with weight performed in two sets of 10-30 times; For this exercise you will need chest expander (it can be purchased at any sporting goods store).

The Life

It says a Chinese proverb: ” The one is only consumed that it does not love, but who it loves it gives until the bones dems”. There was almost nobody. The seven of afternoon ran when me it found taking a third-rate cafe, and staring at magazines ” matacorazones”. The daughter of a good friend entered the establishment mine – by whom I feel great affection, that said to me: ” You have five minutes? “. ” And of five mil” , I answered to him. It nailed its glance on my eyes, and exclaimed: ” Desire to be mother, I need ! “. In my sesera thousands and one teemed questions, and inquiri-trying to him to help him: ” You are pregnant woman, perhaps? “. To soon, it responded: ” Far from it! “.

It commented to me that it left with boys, type-married and unmarried, and who ” ” was more worth not to speak of his ;. Also it explained to me that its life passional-law of desire solved sexual-thus it, but its heart appeared cold, with dead color. This resemblance ours has been and is a competent woman 21st century: it has talent, it writes books, she is masterful of the State comprising of the social organizational chart by own merits. My good one friend-saving age-is atheistic, it less still does not believe in the men and in the love. To thus it confessed it me, and it gave me to consent to comment it. In any case, my fellow member is a brave-beautiful, handsome and intelligent creature, who chose her volunteer soltera. That is to say, confronting the life far from its ancestors, being responsible for its own decisions.

This tapeworm and loving woman know that ” the love is a too precious flower for cortarla” (proverb Chinese) -, it continued with its friendly confessions. Thus, it evacuated of its inner fear and fears with solitude. And it said more to me: ” I need to give (to give) affection somebody, I need ‘ hombre’ in order to make a baby-the of my dreams, but damn AIDS: slip with him around any esquina”. It is evident, at the present time, that they exist nios/as educated, and well, by its single woman mothers. Before fear-that they are ours I advised: ” It looks for a manthere are what them! -, that respects your body and tempers your alma”. Explcale your project I said to loving-him, because you will find that man X n. l will transmit their feelings of admiration, esteem and gratefulness to you, that perpetual tracks inside your belly will leave.? sta is our solitude of love that we are creating. Paradoxes of the last years of our century XX: a single boy, a single mother also. Erikson maintained that ” the women are destined to have hijos”. She was mistaken, like human beings who we are. In truth this girl was begging for maternity. If my daughter, of her age, had requested me advice, perhaps, my heart would cry tears, and my larynx would articulate word some. Corunna, 2 of June of 2007 – * Mariano C.


Another point to be observed in the communication, according to author, is the vocabulary, that must translate into the receiver accurately the same felt that it has for the sender, when this does not occur, we say that it did not have an efficient communication. Thus, so that an efficient communication occurs, it is necessary the use of an understandable vocabulary to the receiver as it is to the sender. The communication is composed of verbal and not-verbal manifestations that are used for the communicators, with the intention to change information. The verbal one mentions the express words to it by means of the said language or writing that we use stops communicating in them. For intermediary of the language, we can display our ideas, divide experiences with the other people.

Therefore, without it, we can be limited and not to be understood (STEFANELLI, 1993). Regarding the verbal communication, Bakhtin comments: The job of the language is effected in form of declared (you pray and writings) concrete and only, pronounced for integrant of this or that field of the activity human being. These statements reflect the conditions specific and the purposes of each related field … Evidently, each particular statement is individual, but each field of use of the language elaborates its relatively steady types of statements, which we call sorts of the speech. (BAKHTIN, 2006, 261). The not-verbal communication mentions the manifestations to it of the body, not express for words, as the expressions face, the position of the body, the gestures among others. This form of communication is unconscious and control is not had on it (STEFANELLI, 1993). As if it does not have control on the not-verbal communication, many times are with the aid of the manifestations that we perceive if the sad, glad person this, with fear, feeling pain or worried. Among these manifestations, we can detach the face expression and the corporal one, however all the types of communication can provoke incompreenso, depending on the way as express and it is interpreted, causing modifications in the cases where the communication is effective (STEFANELLI, 1993).